Carlos Duarte Costa

Archbishop Carlos Duarte Costa established the independent branches of this Church's Apostolic Succession having been originally ordained a Roman Catholic Priest on 1 April 1911. He was consecrated as the Roman Catholic Bishop of Botucatu, Brazil, on 8 December 1924 and held that see until certain views he expressed about treatment of the Brazil's poor, by both the civil government and the Roman Catholic Church in Brazil, caused his removal from the Diocese of Botucatu.

Archbishop Duarte Costa was subsequently named Titular Bishop of Maura by the late Pope Pius XII (Eugenio Cardinal Pacelli, formerly Vatican Secretary of State until 1939, under Pope Pius XI). Bishop Duarte Costa had been a strong advocate in the 1930's for reform of the Roman Church; he challenged many of the key issues that the Second Vatican Council would later thirty-five years take action upon.

Archbishop Duarte Costa's criticisms of the Holy See, particularly about Vatican foreign policy during World War II toward Nazi Germany, were not well received at the Vatican, and he was eventually separated from the Roman Church by Pope Pius XII because of his views on the Vatican State's foreign policy during and immediately after World War II.

Duarte Costa espoused liberal church positions on divorce, challenged mandatory celibacy for the clergy, and publicly stated his contempt regarding abuses of papal power, including the concept of Papal Infallibility, which the Bishop considered a misguided and false dogma. Bishop Duarte Costa left the jurisdiction of the Roman Catholic Church on 6 July 1945. He immediately founded the independent Igreja Catolica Apostolica Brasileira (ICAB) on that same date and remained Primate until his death in 1961.

Archbishop Luis Castillo Mendez of Brazil, Patriarch of the National Catholic Apostolic Churches (Igreja Catolica Apostolica Nationales) was consecrated by and succeeded the late Archbishop Duarte Costa as Primate in 1961. Archbishop Luis Castillo Mendez is still leading the worldwide spiritual confederation of the National Catholic Apostolic Churches founded by the late Archbishop Duarte Costa. These national churches are now estimated to have a combined worldwide membership which exceeds 12 million members. According to the ancient practice of the early Church and among many Orthodox Christian bishops, such catholic apostolic churches exist in their countries, functioning both as autonomous and independent Particular Churches.

In addition to ICAB in Brazil, there are sister apostolic branches in thirteen other countries in the Western Hemisphere, Europe, the Pacific and in Asia, including: Argentina (ICAA), Chile, Venezuela, Cuba, Mexico, Spain, Germany, France, Portugal, Australia, the Philippines, Canada and the United States of America. While bound by a common origin from Archbishop Duarte Costa's apostolic line, each bishop is autonomous, being completely independent and self-governing, while adhering to doctrinal precepts of Orthodox Christianity.

Bishop Salomao Ferraz who was a former Roman Catholic Priest, was consecrated a bishop by Archbishop Carlos Duarte Costa for the Igreja Catolica Apostolica Brasileira (ICAB) in 1945, and was eventually reconciled with the Roman Catholic Church in 1958 during the late pontificate of Pope Pius XII. Bishop Ferraz was named by the Holy See to be Titular Bishop of Eleuterna on May 12, 1963.

Although still married, Bishop Ferraz was later appointed Auxiliary Bishop of Rio de Janeiro by Pope John XXIII.

Bishop Ferraz was later called by Pope Paul VI to serve on a working commission of the Second Vatican Council and addressed the Council Fathers in session.

It is notable that Bishop Ferraz was never re-consecrated by the Roman Catholic Church, even conditionally (sub conditione), and later was buried with the full honors accorded bishops of the Roman Catholic Church. The Roman Church by accepting Bishop Ferraz in this manner, without any re-consecration, affirm both de jure and de facto the sacramental validity of the Duarte Costa Apostolic Succession lines of what is commonly known as the "Rebiba Apostolic Succession."

Inclusive Orthodox Church's Apostolic Succession can be traced from all three of the bishops consecrated by Archbishop Carlos Duarte Costa: Bishops Castillo Mendez, Ferraz and Milton Cunha. The Rebiba Apostolic Succession can be traced definitively as far back as the 6th Century among the Archbishops of Canterbury and also from the Roman Catholic Church starting in 1566, eventually passed through Popes Benedict XIII, Benedict XIV and Clement XIII.

Inclusive Orthodox Church's Bishops are in this particular apostolic line, respectively 5th and 6th direct successors to Archbishop Carlos Duarte Costa; and therefore, 15th and 16th in a direct line of bishops succeeding through His Holiness, the late Pope Clement XIII (1758 - 1769).

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DATE LAST UPDATED: 9 February 2015